Just looking back and thinking as what India has given to the World. Looked around on internet and summarized some of the great contributions. Interestingly all of these contributions are ancient. Links provide more information on each contribution. Jai ho…
1. Number Zero was invented by Aryabhatta(476-550)
2. Number System developed by Bhaskara I (600-680) based on Aryabhatta work during 7th Century and later popularized by Arabs.
3. The value of "pi" was first calculated by Baudhayana (1114-1185) and he explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean Theorem. He discovered this long before the European mathematicians.
4. The World's first University was established in Takshila in 7th Century of BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world studies more than 60 subjects. This place is now located in Pakistan after India’s Partition.
5. The World’s first residential University was established in Nalanda. It had dormitories for students. It accommodated over 10,000 students and 2,000 teachers. The University of Nalanda was built in 427, it was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education.
6. Indians invented the Science of Astronomy during the Gupta period. The book Surya Siddhanta is treated as major reference book of Indian Astronomy written during Gupta Period (280 – 550). Through this book Aryabhatta was first to hold that the earth is a sphere that rotates around its own axis. He also discovered the causes of solar and lunar eclipses, and methods to predict their occurrence.
7. In 5th Century, Bhaskaracharya calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the sun hundreds of years before it was calculated in west. Time taken by earth to orbit the Sun: 365.258756484 days.
8. Ayurveda (5000 BC during Vedic period) is perhaps the most important contribution to medicine that India has made. It means 'way of life' in Sanskrit. For centuries, Ayurveda has provided diagnoses on curing diseases, through the use of natural substances such as plants, herbs and metals. Today, the magic of Ayurvedic healing can be found in ready-made, packaged bottles the world over.
9. According to the Gemological Institute of America, up until 1896, India was the only source for Diamonds to the world.
10. This ancient text on sexual love- Kama Sutra, was written by Vatsyayana in the mid-4th century. The text was made accessible to the English-speaking world by the orientalist Sir Richard Burton.
11. Patanjali gave the knowledge of Yoga in 150 BCE, it helps to keep a healthy body and sound mind.
12. Swastika, was first found in the Indus Vally Civilization, the difference between Indian Swastika and misused Nazi Swastika is explained in another article I wrote in the past.
13. Guru – literal meaning of Guru is Master, but it is more treated in sense of a spiritual master, and a guide. Now Guru word has become famous all around the world.
14. Chess was originated in India during Gupta empire (280 – 550)
15. Indian Martial Arts – More than 5000 BCE, Martial arts was mentioned and used in Mahabharta. Written evidence is found dated 2BCE
Some other contributions include Indian Spices and Herbs for taste, Bindi, Nose Ring and Salwar-Kameez for fashion or decoration.